I dag 1 juni 2015 ble det publisert en artikkel i Nature med tittel: «Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels» med interessante funn. I abstraktet kan vi lese at sentralenervesystemet mangler det klassiske lymfesystemet, samtidig som det er aksept for at immunsystemet overvåker sentralnervesystemet. Hvordan immunsystemet fungerer/arbeider i CNS har hittil vært ukjent.
Den nye oppdagelsen av cellestukturer som innehar egenskapene til lymfesystemet, gjør at en kan revurdere de grunnleggende neuroimmunologiske hypotesene. Dette funnet kan kaste ett nytt lys i hvordan en kan forså opprinnelsen og årsaker til neuroinflamatoriske og neurodegenerative sykdommer som er assosiert med dysfuksjoner i immunsystemet.
Sammendraget er som følger:
One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment1, 2, 3, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood4, 5, 6.
In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system.
The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.
Missing link found between brain, immune system
Alzheimer’s, Autism, MS and Beyond
The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it.
For example, take Alzheimer’s disease. «In Alzheimer’s, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain,» Kipnis said. «We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they’re not being efficiently removed by these vessels.» He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore.
And there’s an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.